Mar 12, 2016
Category: Literature
Posted by: ABPadmin

Basic ABG section has been updated

CMS - 1.12.2 - Kolonia


  1. • Albert, Morris S. 1967. “Quantitative Displacement of Acid-Base Equilibrium in Metabolic Acidosis.” Annals of Internal Medicine 66 (2): 312
  2. • Berend, Kenrick, Aiko P.J. de Vries, and Rijk O.B. Gans. 2014. “Physiological Approach to Assessment of Acid–Base Disturbances.” New England Journal of Medicine 371 (15): 1434–45
  3. • Boyd, John H, and Keith R Walley. 2008. “Is There a Role for Sodium Bicarbonate in Treating Lactic Acidosis from Shock?” Current Opinion in Critical Care 14 (4): 379–83
  4. • Brönsted, J. N. 1923. “Einige Bemerkungen Über Den Begriff Der Säuren Und Basen.” Recueil Des Travaux Chimiques Des Pays-Bas 42 (8): 718–28
  5. Original publication by Brønsted in German. An English translation is available at Chem Team
  6. • Bruno, Cosimo Marcello, Maria Valenti, Cosimo Marcello Bruno, and Maria Valenti. 2012. “Acid-Base Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review, Acid-Base Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review.” BioMed Research International, BioMed Research International 2012, 2012 (February): e915150
  7. • Charles, Joseph C, and Raymond R Heilman. 2005. “Metabolic Acidosis.” Hospital Physician, March, 37–42
  8. Metabolic acidosis is commonly encountered in clinical practice and is often associated with life threatening conditions (sepsis, toxic ingestion etc) or consequences (hyperkalemia, cardiac and vascular dysfunction). This paper reviews the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis and therapy of common metabolic causes of acidosis.
  9. • “ChemTeam: JN Bronsted on Acids and Bases.” 2016. Accessed April 13
  10. The chemical character of acids and bases is most simply and generally defined by the scheme acid <===> base + H+
  11. • Dubin, Arnaldo, María M Menises, Fabio D Masevicius, Miriam C Moseinco, Daniela Olmos Kutscherauer, Elizabeth Ventrice, Enrique Laffaire, and Elisa Estenssoro. 2007. “Comparison of Three Different Methods of Evaluation of Metabolic Acid-Base Disorders.” Critical Care Medicine 35 (5): 1264–70
  12. This is from series of papers that are included on this site that integrate the 3 different methods of acid-base interpretation (bicarbonate, base excess and Stewart). In a stdy of 935 critically ill patients, the authors show that the 3 methods have comparable diagnostic and prognostic performance.
  13. • Forni, Lui, William McKinnon, and Philip Hilton. 2006. “Unmeasured Anions in Metabolic Acidosis: Unravelling the Mystery.” Critical Care 10 (4): 220
  14. A review of unmeasured anions in ciritcally ill patients with metabolic acidosis. Based on chromatographic studies of serum from these patients, anions associated with the Krebs cycle may play a signficant role in generation of the anion gap in “classic” lactic acidosis and acidosis of unknown cause. This paper reviews prior work from the authors and others in characterizing these products of incomplete oxidation.
  15. • Gauthier, Philippe M, and Harold M Szerlip. 2002. “Metabolic Acidosis in the Intensive Care Unit.” Critical Care Clinics 18 (2): 289–308
  16. A review of metabolic causes of acidosis with a focus on conditions encountered in critically ill patients. Good explanation of anion gap and hyperchloremic acidosis. Common conditions encountered in the ICU and their treatment are discussed.
  17. • Kellum, J A. 2000. “Determinants of Blood pH in Health and Disease.” Critical Care (London, England) 4 (1): 6–14
  18. Introduction to the semi-quantitative approach of Stewart.
  19. • Kellum, John A. 2005. “Clinical Review: Reunification of Acid-Base Physiology.” Critical Care (London, England) 9 (5): 500–507
  20. A review of acid-base phyisology and 3 frameworks used to understand acid-base disturbances. This paper attempts to reconcile and combine the 3 approaches.
  21. • Kellum, John A., and Paul Wg Elbers. 2009. Stewart’s Textbook of Acid-Base. 2nd ed. edition target="_blank">
  22. • Koeppen, Bruce M. 2009. “The Kidney and Acid-Base Regulation.” Advances in Physiology Education 33 (4): 275–81
  23. An excellent update of a prior review. Updated to reflect more recent understanding of specific membrane transporters involved in hydogen ion, bicarbonate and ammonium ion transport as well as the regulation and response of these transporters in systemic acid-base disorders.
  24. • Kraut, Jeffrey A, and Nicolaos E Madias. 2007. “Serum Anion Gap: Its Uses and Limitations in Clinical Medicine.” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN 2 (1): 162–74
  25. An excellent review of anion gap that includes a discussion of laboratory methods used to measure electrolytes and how that affects reported values for AG. Includes a discussion of conditions associated with low or negative anion gap
  26. • Kurtz, Ira, Jeffrey Kraut, Vahram Ornekian, and Minhtri K. Nguyen. 2008. “Acid-Base Analysis: A Critique of the Stewart and Bicarbonate-Centered Approaches.” American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology 294 (5): F1009–31
  27. • Levesque, P R. 1975. “Acid-Base Disorders: Application of Total Body Carbon Dioxide Titration in Anesthesia.” Anesthesia and Analgesia 54 (3): 299–307
  28. • Madias, N. E., and H. J. Adrogué. 2003. “Cross-Talk between Two Organs: How the Kidney Responds to Disruption of Acid-Base Balance by the Lung.” Nephron Physiology 93 (3): p61–66
  29. • Madias, Nicolaos E. 2010. “Renal Acidification Responses to Respiratory Acid-Base Disorders.” Journal of Nephrology 23 Suppl 16 (December): S85-91
  30. • Madias, Nicolaos E., Charles J. Wolf, and Jordan J. Cohen. 1985. “Regulation of Acid-Base Equilibrium in Chronic Hypercapnia.” Kidney International 27 (3): 538–43
  31. • Marhong, Jonathan, and Eddy Fan. 2014. “Carbon Dioxide in the Critically Ill: Too Much or Too Little of a Good Thing?” Respiratory Care 59 (10): 1597–1605
  32. • Mokhlesi, Babak. 2010. “Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: A State-of-the-Art Review.” Respiratory Care 55 (10): 1347–65
  33. • Morgan, T John. 2009. “The Stewart Approach - One Clinician’s Perspective.” The Clinical Biochemist Reviews / Australian Association of Clinical Biochemists 30 (2): 41–54
  34. • Moviat, Mirjam, Frank van Haren, and Hans van der Hoeven. 2003. “Conventional or Physicochemical Approach in Intensive Care Unit Patients with Metabolic Acidosis.” Critical Care (London, England) 7 (3): R41-5
  35. • Narins, R G, and M Emmett. 1980. “Simple and Mixed Acid-Base Disorders: A Practical Approach.” Medicine 59 (3): 161–87
  36. One of the classic reviews in acid base physiology. Highly recommended for beginners and intermediate students.
  37. • Nørby, Jens G. 2000. “The Origin and the Meaning of the Little P in pH.” Trends in Biochemical Sciences 25 (1): 36–37
  38. Review of the origin of the term pH. It is often reported that the letter “p” denotes potenz, or puissance (German and French for power). Based on his review of Sørensen’s work, the author offers a differing view.
  39. • Pitts, R F, and RS Alexander. 1945. “The Nature of the Renal Tubular Mechanism for Acidifying the Urine” 144: 239–254
  40. Using a canine model of acid loading, the authors study renal tubular mechanisms for acidfying urine. They show that acidification occurs as a result of exchange of Na+/H+ ions across tubular cells resulting in excretion of monobasic sodium phosphate and reabsorption of bicarbonate.
  41. • Raff, Hershel. 2004. “The Significance of the Blood Gas Analyzer.” J Appl Physiol 97 (5): 1597–98
  42. • Rastegar, Asghar. 2007. “Use of the ΔAG/ΔHCO3− Ratio in the Diagnosis of Mixed Acid-Base Disorders.” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 18 (9): 2429–31
  43. An excellent review of using the delta Gap ratio including it’s limitations.
  44. • Rocktaeschel, Jens, Hiroshi Morimatsu, Shigehiko Uchino, and Rinaldo Bellomo. 2003. “Unmeasured Anions in Critically Ill Patients: Can They Predict Mortality?” Critical Care Medicine 31 (8): 2131–36
  45. • Schlichtig, R, A W Grogono, and J W Severinghaus. 1998. “Human PaCO2 and Standard Base Excess Compensation for Acid-Base Imbalance.” Critical Care Medicine 26 (7): 1173–79
  46. • Schrier, Robert W, and Shweta Bansal. 2008. “Diagnosis and Management of Hyponatremia in Acute Illness.” Current Opinion in Critical Care 14 (6): 627–34
  47. • Severinghaus, J W, and P B Astrup. 1986. “History of Blood Gas Analysis IV Leland Clark’s Oxygen Electrode.” Journal of Clinical Monitoring 2 (2): 125–39
  48. • Severinghaus, John W. 2004. “First Electrodes for Blood PO2 and PCO2 Determination.” J Appl Physiol 97 (5): 1599–1600
  49. • Severinghaus, John W, and Poul B Astrup. 1986. “History of Blood Gas Analysis VI Oximetry.” Journal of Clinical Monitoring 2 (4): 270–88
  50. • Slyke, Donald D. Van. 1922. “On the Measurement of Buffer Values and on the Relationship of Buffer Value to the Dissociation Constant of the Buffer and the Concentration and Reaction of the Buffer Solution.” Journal of Biological Chemistry 52 (2): 525–70
  51. One of the classic papers by Van Slyke. In depth analysis of buffer action and description of a quantitative measure of buffer effect. One of the first papers to show that the capacity of human blood to neutralize non-volatile acids is largely due to the fact that CO2 is continually removed by ventilation.
  52. • Story, David A. 2004. “Bench-to-Bedside Review: A Brief History of Clinical Acid-Base.” Critical Care (London, England) 8 (4): 253–58
  53. • Ströhle, Alexander, Andreas Hahn, and Anthony Sebastian. 2010. “Estimation of the Diet-Dependent Net Acid Load in 229 Worldwide Historically Studied Hunter-Gatherer Societies.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91 (2): 406–12
  54. Using recent ethnographic data of plant-to-animal(P:A) subsistence patterns of hunter-gatherer populations and established computational methods, the authors estimate Net Endogenous Acid Production (NEAP) for 229 worldwide forager populations. Contemporary foragers provide the most relevant models for at least late Paleolithic human dietary subsistence patterns. The authors estimate that modern diets are associated with a significant increase in NEAP.
  55. • Swenson, Erik R. 2016. “Pharmacology of Acute Mountain Sickness: Old Drugs and Newer Thinking.” Journal of Applied Physiology 120 (2): 204–15
  56. • Webster, N R, and V Kulkarni. 1999. “Metabolic Alkalosis in the Critically Ill.” Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 36 (5): 497–510
  57. Review of metabolic alkalosis in critically ill patients. Etiologies as well as classification of disorders into chloride responsive and unresponsive types.
  58. • Wooten, E Wrenn. 2004. “Science Review: Quantitative Acid-Base Physiology Using the Stewart Model.” Critical Care (London, England) 8 (6): 448–52
  59. • Worthley, L. I. 1977. “Hydrogen Ion Metabolism.” Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 5 (4): 347–60
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